### Standards

#### Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS):

**HS-PS2-4.** Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

**HS-PS2-5.** Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

**HS-PS2-6.** Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

**HS-PS3-2**. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields.

**HS-PS3-3**. Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

**HS-PS3-5**. Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

#### Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks (2006):

**5.1** Recognize that an electric charge tends to be static on insulators and can move on and in conductors. Explain that energy can produce a separation of charges.

**5.2** Develop qualitative and quantitative understandings of current, voltage, resistance, and the connections among them (Ohm’s law).

**5.3** Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in both series and parallel circuits. Recognize symbols and understand the functions of common circuit elements (battery, connecting wire, switch, fuse, resistance) in a schematic diagram.

**5.4** Describe conceptually the attractive or repulsive forces between objects relative to their charges and the distance between them (Coulomb’s law).

**5.5** Explain how electric current is a flow of charge caused by a potential difference (voltage), and how power is equal to current multiplied by voltage.

**5.6** Recognize that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces. Recognize that the interplay of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and other technologies.

#### Topics from this chapter assessed on the SAT Physics Subject Test:

**Electric Fields, Forces, and Potentials**, such as Coulomb’s law, induced charge, field and potential of groups of point charges, and charged particles in electric fields
**Capacitance**, such as parallel-plate capacitors and time-varying behavior in charging/ discharging
**Circuit Elements and DC Circuits**, such as resistors, light bulbs, series and parallel networks, Ohm’s law, and Joule’s law
**Magnetism**, such as permanent magnets, fields caused by currents, particles in magnetic fields, Faraday’s law, and Lenz’s law.

- Electric Charge
- Electric Force
- Electric Field
- Electric Potential
- Conductors and Insulators
- Voltage
- Current
- Resistance
- Energy, Power, and Heat
- Circuits
- Capacitors
- Permanent Magnets
- Magnetic Force on Charges
- Magnetic Force on Current-Carrying Wires
- The Magnetic Field Due to a current
- Motional EMF
- Faraday’s Law