### Standards

#### Massachusetts Frameworks (2006):

**1.4** Interpret and apply Newton’s three laws of motion.

**1.5** Use a free-body force diagram to show forces acting on a system consisting of a pair of interacting objects. For a diagram with only co-linear forces, determine the net force acting on a system and between the objects.

**1.6** Distinguish qualitatively between static and kinetic friction, and describe their effects on the motion of objects.

**1.7** Describe Newton’s law of universal gravitation in terms of the attraction between two objects, their masses, and the distance between them.

#### Next Generation Science Standards:

**HS-PS2-1**. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

**HS-PS2-3**. Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

**HS-PS2-4**. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

#### Concepts assessed on the SAT Physics Subject Test:

**Dynamics**, such as force, Newton’s laws, statics, and friction.
**Gravity**, such as the law of gravitation, orbits, and Kepler’s laws.

- What are Forces?
- Types of Forces
- Newton’s Laws
- Problem Solving With Newton’s Laws
- Pulleys
- Inclined Planes
- Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
- Weightlessness