Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS):
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.
HS-PS3-1. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.
HS-PS3-2. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields.
HS-PS3-4. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).
Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks (2006):
3.1 Explain how heat energy is transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation.
3.2 Explain how heat energy will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until equilibrium is reached.
3.3 Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships among evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming.
3.4 Explain the relationships among temperature changes in a substance, the amount of heat transferred, the amount (mass) of the substance, and the specific heat of the substance.
Topics from this chapter assessed on the SAT Physics Subject Test:
- Thermal Properties, such as temperature, heat transfer, specific and latent heats, and thermal expansion.
- Laws of Thermodynamics, such as first and second laws, internal energy, entropy, and heat engine efficiency.
- Heat and Temperature
- The Kinetic Theory of Gases & the Ideal Gas Law
- The Laws of Thermodynamics
- Heat Engines